Where I live maximum daily temperatures in the high 30s Celsius are not unusual in summer and frosts are common in the winter. All year around the temperature a couple of metres or more underground are a comfortable 18 degrees. (In a hotter climate a similar cellar to the one I built could also be cooled passively by nocturnal radiation.)
We heat our houses in winter and cool them in summer and most of us give very little thought to the millions of tonnes of soil and rock beneath our feet that is at a very pleasant temperature. In a world where reducing energy consumption is desperately important because of climate change and ocean acidification why don't we make more use of in-ground building?
Underground living has been very effectively adopted in the northern South Australian town of Coober Pedy.
I've written and provided photos of some Coober Pedy examples of underground architecture on
another page on this site.
Refuge from bushfire I am not an expert in bushfires. Before building a cellar as a refuge you might be wise to discuss the matter with someone who has had experience in the field.
Following the Victorian bushfires of February 2009, in which more than a hundred people were killed, it's worth stressing that a cellar is not just a refuge from summer heat, it is also available as an excellent refuge from bushfires. Both heat and bushfires are going to be more common with climate change; perhaps even more importantly, days of fire danger levels greater than what has been known as 'extreme' will be more frequent.
It would be important to seriously consider whether your house or other structures or trees might block your escape from your cellar following a bushfire. You would also need to consider the possibility of a wooden cellar door catching fire and the consequences of that.
The cellar would have to be the last resort. Obviously you wouldn't be able to protect your house while you were taking refuge in a cellar.
Small, simple, fire refuge?It would not be necessary to build a big cellar like the one discussed on this page, something much smaller and simpler could be used. It would be sufficient to dig a hole about 2m diameter, line it with bricks or stone and put a reinforced concrete slab on top with a steel hatch in it. Cover most of the slab with a little soil. You'd need a ladder beneath the hatch, and before you had to use it take down as many folding chairs as you needed.
The soil would protect the cellar and its occupants from the radiant heat of the fire. There would be radiant heat from the steel hatch, but I suspect that would not be dangerous in the short time involved.
If there was any possibility of having trees or limbs fall on top of the cellar then it would be as well to put a steel tripod-frame over the top to ensure that they could not block the hatch and stop you from being able to get out.
Such a simple cellar will probably fill up with water in a wet period,
but the water would almost certainly be long gone before any bad fire.
An option, if the land was sloping, would be to put in a drain from the
bottom of the cellar to a lower point on the hillside.
It is also possible to build a very simple cellar by burying a shipping container. It is questionable how long the walls and roof of the container would withstand the pressure from the soil, and the steel would probably rust very quickly, especially in areas with relatively high rainfalls and acid soils (such as in my case). I seriously considered using a shipping container and various methods to control rusting and protect the container from soil pressure, but finally gave up the idea as impractical.
Some cellars are based on a concrete tank built on site
in an excavation and then covered with soil, as is mine.
deal primarily with a 90 cubic metre cellar set into an excavation and
covered with mulch and soil.
The cost of earthmoving was only about 5% of the total cost of constructing the cellar.
The main hole and most of the drain was dug by S.C. Heinrich using the big excavator shown digging the drain in the photo at the right. The tidying-up of the hole and the spreading of the base gravel was done by Mark Harrold's mini-excavator also shown in a photo on the right.
The concrete part of this cellar was built by Adelaide Hills Concrete Tanks, PO Box 902 Strathalbyn 5255, South Australia. Phone 08 8391 2013, mobile 0408 365 551. It is covered by a twenty year written guarantee.
Electrical wiring was done by David Bond.
The doors were built and installed by Craige Lloyd (Vision Builders), Blyth. 08 8844 5180, mobile 0419 188 089.
The contractors had no input into this Internet page and I have no financial arrangements with any of the contractors apart from the building of this cellar.
Another South Australian specialist in building concrete cellars is
Hyteck Concrete Products,
Paringa, phone 08 8595 5266, mobile 0414 812 220.
greenhouse and ocean acidification.
In South Australia electricity for running air conditioning (home cooling) is at its least reliable when needed most: in periods of exceptional heat, simply because the supply system is then under its greatest load.
The greatest fire hazard occurs on exceptionally hot and windy days. On such days power lines expand both from the heat due to the weather and due to the high current in the wires. This causes the lines to sag more and combined with the winds they are more likely to clash together and cause sparks and fires. Also heat and wind makes branches and trees more likely to fall over power lines and cause fires. For these reasons the electricity supply is sometimes switched off as a precaution on hot windy days.
Using a cellar as a means of staying cool not only avoids the problem of unreliable electrical supply for the user, but also helps to reduce one of the causes of the problem: peak demand. So from the point of view both of the user of the cellar and those running the electrical grid, cellars are a good way of staying cool on exceptionally hot days.
Any increase in one's level of self-sufficiency, and independence from the electricity grid, must be a good thing.
A cellar, such as this one, is a safe refuge from
This cellar is about 7.4m diameter and 2.1m high inside, with an internal volume of 90 cubic metres. The concrete roof weighs about 15 tonnes and a layer of soil 20cm thick over this would weigh an additional 15 tonnes. The whole cellar must be made to safely handle these weights.
As the cellar is mostly below ground level it must be able to keep out the water that will saturate the surrounding soil in a wet winter, and any storm water run-off. This particular cellar, being basically a water tank, keeps water out quite well; as of 2009/06/26 I have had it almost three years, and have not seen any indication of leakage through the concrete.
However, the join between the walls and the roof do weep when the soil adjacent becomes saturated – which in my area is uncommon. The floor and walls were poured first and in one piece; the roof was added later so there is a 'crack' beneath the roof.
The round shape resists pressure from the surrounding earth, which is considerable when it becomes very wet. Gravel beds and perforated pipes were laid for three metres beneath each abutment to stop the earth near the abutments from becoming waterlogged and slumping (see photos). A 100mm drain pipe takes water from the excavation near the cellar door down a trench to a lower point on the hill slope (see photos).
Any intelligent and open-minded person knows that our society must reduce its production of greenhouse gasses. While making the cement that is used for building a cellar does result in a substantial amount of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere, once constructed the energy saving over the life of the cellar will result in a much greater saving of emissions.
One of the disadvantages of cellars is that they are not well suited to
the use of natural daylight. It is difficult to use natural lighting while
keeping heat from entering or exiting.
However, 20 Watts of LED lighting, so long as it is well placed, is quite enough for reading (3 Watts of LED lighting is quite enough for a reading light above a bed), using a computer, and many other activities; 30 Watts goes nowhere for heating or cooling.
The great advantage of cellars is in their ability to maintain temperatures
within fairly narrow limits, this is the key point.
The steel reinforcing used in the cellar would probably be responsible for another tonne or so of carbon dioxide.
A concrete cellar should last at least twenty, and quite probably fifty or a hundred years (in April 2016 it was nearly ten years old and, so far as I could see, as good as new). Of course a cellar is also capable of keeping many cubic metres of stores at a fairly constant temperature all year around, something that would otherwise require a large refrigerated cool-room.
I have calculated the greenhouse CO2 that my wife and I are responsible for releasing in 2006 (including the building of this cellar) at my CO2 balance.
Engineering and water matters. Several other features are significant.
SiteThe cellar is built into a gently sloping hillside. The floor of the cellar is about 1.5m below natural ground level on the upper side and about 1m below ground level on the lower part of the slope, near the door of the cellar. The slope of the hill allowed the cellar pit to be drained by natural flow through a 20m buried drain running down the hill.
DoorsThere is only one doorway with two doors. An inner wooden door (which includes a small hatch for flow-through ventilation) opening inward, and an outer screen door opening outward. The doorway has a clear metre's width to allow moving large items in and out. The door is accessed by a ramp that has a fall of around a metre.
Flow through ventilationOpposite the door, in the roof, is a 14cm diameter hole which is capped with a spinning ventilator. This, together with the small hatch in the door, provides sufficient ventilation to keep the air fresh inside. Leaving the wooden door open, but the screen door closed, provides fairly free ventilation (also see my notes on temperature control). Closing the wooden door but leaving its little hatch open provides limited ventilation. Closing the hatch minimises ventilation.
skylight would have to add significant complexity and cost, and with modern LED lights and green electricity, electric lighting is very cheap and has low environmental impact.
I would also consider ways of increasing ventilation as a way of temperature control. The ideal might be a large skylight that can be in any one of four states:
An extractor fan could be used to maximise air flow, but has the disadvantage of being noisy and consuming electricity. Perhaps it is possible to buy quiet extractor fans; if so they could be useful to force ventilation when one might want to replace excessively cold air in the cellar in winter with the warmer air of a pleasant winter's day.
Another aproach would be to build your cellar first, then your house on top of your cellar; the roof of the cellar could be integrated into the floor slab of your house. The cellar could project beyond the house on one (or more) sides and ventilation and a sky-light could be placed in the roof of the cellar at that point.
Passive cooling by
Temperatures fall at night, but in the height of summer in my location
even minimum overnight air temperatures can be too warm to be comfortable.
How did this happen? At night, especially when there is a clear sky (as there usually is in the summer where I live) heat is radiated away into space. A slab of rock is quite a good radiator, and can lose heat by radiation faster than the surrounding air can warm it. (The bottom of the slab, which received radiation from the soil below, was at 16°.)
The experiment with the stone slab suggests to me that it would be possible to cool the roofing slab to around seven degrees below the minimum air temperature on a cloudless night. (The roof slab of my cellar is 150mm thick, so would be slower to cool than the 100mm stone slab of the experiment; on the other hand, the air beneath the roof slab would probably be cooler than the air beneath the stone slab.)
How would you make the insulated covering easily moved? Perhaps it could be made into a rigid 'slab' which could be rolled on or off the cellar on rails? Alternatively the cover could be folded up in the manner of the covers of a ship's hold.
The passive cooling by nocturnal radiation could be augmented using
I've written a bit on this on
another page on
Leaving the solid door open, and the screen door closed, all of one cool night might only lower the temperature by a degree, but this is useful as once cool it does not quickly heat up again.
In winter, when and if the sun shines in the afternoon (not common in Clare winters), the wooden door can be left open in the afternoon to allow the sun to shine in and slightly warm the cellar (see photo).
I found that about 25 or 30cm of soil and mulch on the roof, with a cover of plants, or at least mulch, is sufficient to keep the cellar from getting above 24 degrees through summer in all but exceptional heat-waves (it has got to 25.5 degrees). The aim of the plant cover is to shade the soil. In the first summer I planted pumpkins, for a quick result; then Australian native groundcover plants, which have a modest need for water.
I believe that a Vaulted entrance would greatly
improve the long-term temperature stability of the cellar, as it is around
the entrance where the cellar is most exposed to sun and air.
|Cellar entrance 2014/01/12|
The roof, of second hand galvanised iron, was erected in September 2010. It keeps most of the direct sunlight off the exposed concrete and door, and keeps most of the rain off the woodwork of the door frame and inner door.
Heart-leafed ice plant, Aptenia cordifolia, and creeping Boobiala, Myoporum Insulare are the plants hanging down the wall and covering the stone abutments. Both are drought resistant.
The maximum temperature I recorded in the cellar in the first summer was 25° C, while the outside temperatures got into the low forties on a number of days. This was before I had as much soil and vegetation cover on the roof as I wanted. With a thicker cover of soil and more fully developed vegetative cover it became unusual for summer temperatures in the cellar to go above 23° (the readings of around 25° in 2009 occurred during a record heatwave).
As mentioned elsewhere, the temperature deep in the ground in my area is 18° C.
The temperature in the cellar in winter gets down to was 10 or 11°; outside the cellar, frosts are common. I have made no attempt to heat the cellar, apart from letting the afternoon sun shine in through the door, and leaving the wooden door open, on some of the warmer days. Typically, the temperature does not vary by more than a half a degree in a day.
It is interesting to note that the more recent summer temperatures in the cellar have tended to be a little lower than that of 2007/08 (other than the few temperatures recorded duiring the heatwave of late January and early February 2009). I suspect that most of the gradual change is due to the steadily increasing plant cover over the top; some ground-cover is also beginning to cover the exposed concrete walls. I have also added a little more soil on top of the roof.
About half of the mulch and loam to go on the roof was placed within the first three months; the other half went on gradually over the next couple of years. The fact that the increase in cover on top of the cellar seems to have made only slight differences to temperatures within the cellar suggests that most of the heat entering and exiting the cellar is via the door and exposed wall near the door (see Vaulted entrance).
I used a shade sale to keep some of the sunshine off the front of the cellar in the summers of 2006/07 to 09/10; in September 2010 this was replaced by a permanent corregated steel roof intended to keep both the summer sunshine and the winter rains off the wooden door and front wall.
Carbon dioxide calculations
Engineering and water matters
How to do it better
Methods of building cellars
Notes on digging the hole
Passive cooling by radiation
Pros and cons of a cellar
Purpose of cellar
Why build a cellar?