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Game-changers
Technicalities
High prices; the effects
Uncertainty; the effects
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SA's Energy Future; where from here?

At the time of writing over half of South Australia's electricity supply was generated from wind and light. It was not uncommon for there to be more renewable energy being generated than could be used in the state or exported interstate.

Yet South Australia still had huge untapped renewable energy resources; these should be seen as great assets – perhaps the state's greatest assets. It is obvious that renewable energy is the future; the state, and the nation, should be seriously pursuing the huge potential of renewable energy, not only to run the nation, but as an export industry.

In what follows I estimate that development of the wind power resources of South Australia's Eyre and Yorke Peninsulas could double the state's current wind power. I point out that while we have no offshore wind power at present, we could develop a huge amount and I show by a simple calculation that more solar power could be generated in a small part of northern SA than is consumed in the whole of Australia.

Calculations like these have been done before; they are not new. What is new is that now these things are economically viable. The one thing missing for the full and early development of these assets is vision in those who are running the country (whoever they are).

This page was written 2018/08/08, modified 2018/09/27
Contact: email daveclarkecb@yahoo.com (David K. Clarke) – ©
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Australia's energy future


Who wants renewable energy?

The situation at the time of writing

 

Change of government

In March 2018 the Labor government that presided over a period in which the state's last coal-fired power stations were closed down and renewable energy went from near zilch to 50%+ was replace with a Liberal government. The new Liberal government, unlike its federal counterpart, has recognised the value and inevitability of renewable energy and the fact of the popularity of renewable energy.
The graph below shows energy generation in SA in the week ending the morning of 2018/08/08; it is fairly typical of the winter of 2018, although showing a little more wind power than average. The caption shows the sources of the energy generation. The purple segments scattered along the bottom of the graph show energy imported from Victoria, the segments below the Generation=0 line are energy exports to Victoria.

Wind generation has been periodically limited, that is, the generation of some wind farms has been intentionally reduced (the technical term used is 'curtailed') for two reasons:

  1. The Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) wants to keep a minimum amount of gas-fired generation running at all times for stability of the grid;
  2. Generation sometimes exceeds the total of consumption and the capacity of the interstate interconnectors.

A record of South Australia's power generation for the first week of August 2018
Electricity generation
Graph credit: Open NEM. I can highly recommend this site to anyone interested in the ins and outs of the National Electricity Market (NEM).


 

The need for backup (peaking power, power on demand)

The period of low wind generation (high gas generation, shown as pink on the left side of the graph) from about 4 pm on July 31st to 9 pm on August 1st represents a shortfall of from 700 MW to 1,700 MW of renewable power and about 20 GWh of renewable energy. This is something like 13 times the energy storage expected to be available from the proposed Baroota Reservoir pumped hydro development (and 150 times the energy storage of the Hornsdale Power Reserve aka the Tesla Big Battery.)
Considering the above the present constraints on SA's electricity generation development are related to:
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  • An increasing amount of renewable energy being developed – to the point where generation is increasingly frequently greater than consumption;
  • Limited local consumption;
  • Limited capacity to export electricity;
  • Very little energy storage.
I have discussed how Australia should generate its electricity, the need for energy storage such as pumped hydro and the myth of base-load power elsewhere.

A part of one of about 11 wind farms or wind farm groups in South Australia at the time of writing
Wind farm
Wattle Point Wind Farm, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia


Where do we stand at present?
A summary

  • South Australia has a large amount of installed wind power; so large that it sometimes exceeds the total of the state's power consumption and the capacity of the interstate interconnectors;
  • There are two interconnectors between SA and Victoria, but their capacity is sometimes less than needed for both importing and exporting power;
  • More wind power is being developed, and far more has been proposed;
  • About a third of South Australian houses have roof-top solar power, the proportion of commercial premises with solar is probably similar;
  • Utility scale solar power at the present is small, but is about to become a major factor in the generation/consumption equation; in a decade or so it could become as large as present wind power generation;
  • There is negligible energy storage in the state and the amount proposed to be built in the near future is not sufficient to cover foreseeable needs;
  • There is sufficient gas generation to fill in when the wind isn't blowing and the sun isn't shining, but the few operators in the market are able to manipulate prices to their advantage at such times;
  • For the present at least, I believe that the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) is not allowing new wind farms to be built without some energy storage being included.
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Where next?

 
Peterborough 4.9 MW Solar Farm
Peterborough Solar Farm
Photo taken using my drone, 2018/05/12.
Peterborough township in the background. The solar farm had not long been completed.
In this section I have outlined the changes that are in the process of happening or seem very close to happening. I've listed the more speculative and exciting developments in the game-changer section and some of the technical challenges below.

More solar PV

There are a great many rooftop solar PV installations in SA, typically no bigger than 5 kW and rarely bigger than 100 kW; there is scope for far more.

At the time of writing a number of utility-scale solar PV farms were either under construction or proposed in South Australia, some of these were in excess of 100 MW.

A 50 MW solar farm was proposed for the Snowtown Wind Farm (it was expected that the generation from the solar farm during daylight would smooth the total generation because the wind farm tended to generate most power at night). It seemed likely that any new wind farm would include a significant solar PV component (and battery).

Just one of the more interesting solar developments happening at the time of writing was Solar River Project, stage 1 being 200 MW solar with a 120 MWh battery, expected to come on-line in late 2019; stage 2 another 200 MW solar with a 150 MWh battery, construction expected to start in late 2019. There are others of similar sizes proposed for Mintaro, Whyalla and Tailem Bend; and the Bungama Solar Farm at Port Augusta was near completion of the first of two stages.

Solar thermal with storage

 
Sundrop Farms – the solar power installation
Sundrop Farms solar
A small part of the greenhouse is just visible on the lower right.
Heat is stored in molten salt in the large tank on the right behind the tower.
Photo taken with my drone
At the time of writing Sundrop Farms, near Port Augusta in South Australia (photo on the right) was the only significant development of solar thermal power with energy storage in the country. It is not used to generate grid electricity, it powers a huge greenhouse including desalination of the very salty water supply.

Construction was expected to start within a few months on the 150 MW Aurora solar thermal power station at Port Augusta which will include 1,100 MWh of energy storage (equal to eight hours of full load). Should Aurora prove to be financially viable, more such installations could easily be built.

More wind farms

At the time of writing two wind farms were under construction in SA (Lincoln Gap and Willogoleche), it was looking like construction would start before long on the big Port Augusta Renewable Energy Park (wind and solar) and planning permission was hoped for with the innovative Crystal Brook Energy Park (wind, solar PV, battery, possible hydrogen). Several other wind farms had been proposed.

Exporting excess power to the east

A new interconnector with NSW has been proposed and seems likely to be built; it is expected to cost around $1,500 million and have a capacity of about 600 MW. If built it will encourage further development of renewable energy in SA. It is expected to be in place by 2022-2024.

Energy storage

Several pumped hydro schemes, in addition to the 200-270 MW, 1,600 MWh one at Baroota (photo in the Potential section and mentioned above), have been proposed; many more are needed.

'Virtual' power plants

At the time of writing several pilot projects were underway testing the practicality of integrating household batteries and household solar into the state power grid. The expectation was that this could add flexibility in matching generation to consumption.

In September 2018 the SA (Liberal!) government was aiming at building the world's largest virtual power plant that would eventually include a total of 50,000 houses, 250 MW of solar power and 250 MW/675 MWh of battery storage.

Peaking power

At least until various forms of energy storage (such as pumped hydro) can fill in the generation gaps from renewables we will need peaking power, which currently means gas-fired generation, but there seems to be no need of more in the foreseeable future.

Base-load power

With the current growth in renewables and energy storage there is absolutely no need for new base-load (coal or nuclear) power in South Australia (or, for that matter, in Australia). I have discussed the myth of base-load elsewhere.
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Updated 2018/08/27

The big unknowns: government and the National Energy Guarantee (NEG)

Morrison federal government, new Energy Minister

It was announced yesterday (2018/08/26) that Angus Taylor is our federal new Energy Minister. I hope for the sake of the nation and the world that Mr Taylor is far better informed on energy than he was back in 2012. I had an argument with Angus about wind power on his Facebook page back then, when it became clear he was losing the argument he deleted it. Fortunately I kept a copy.

The NEG

I have not studied the NEG, at least partly because the planning is still in a state of flux. At the time of writing (August 2018) the only things that seems certain about the NEG are that:
  • It will increase certainty in the market for the major generators;
  • It will not encourage the construction of any more renewable energy than would be built in a 'business as usual' situation;
  • It will not encourage sufficient emission reductions to meet Australia's commitments under the Paris agreement.
Predictions vary from:
  • The NEG being a disaster to further renewable energy development and emissions reduction to
  • Renewables development going on with little or no effect from the NEG.
It seemed to me very likely that the NEG would fail on all three of its main aims:
  1. It would not reduce emissions (that, of course, is glaringly obvious);
  2. It would not reduce power bills;
  3. It would not have any significant impact of the reliability of power supply.
On the point of reliability, AEMO's Electricity Statement of Opportunities, September 2017 forecast "From 2018–19 to 2021–22, progressively decreasing levels of potential USE [Unserved Energy - power failures due to insufficient generation] conditions are observed over the next four summers, due to increasing renewable generation." The AEMO report foresaw the highest chance of a USE event happening in financial year 2017/18. There were none in SA so far as I know.

Future federal governments

Will Labor replace the Coalition at the next election?

Getting into the realm of fantasy, will new PM Morrison take Australia's climate change obligations seriously?

South Australia's state government

A long-standing Labor government was replaced by a Liberal government in March 2018. It seems that the new Liberal government has recognised the value of SA's renewable energy and the fact that almost everyone in Australia wants more renewable energy. While they show no sign of criticising the federal COALition government they seem to pose no danger to further renewable energy development.
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What potential is there?
We've just scratched the surface so far.

 
Wind resource map of Australia
Wind resources in Oz
Image from Aust. Dept. of the Environment, Renewable Energy Atlas of Australia
(Apparently no longer available – 2011/03/18)

Wind power potential

Onshore wind power

The map on the right shows the best wind power resource areas in Australia in red.

At the time of writing wind power development in South Australia has been confined to areas that were close to existing high capacity power lines; not a single transmission line has been built (anywhere in Australia) to connect an area of high wind potential to the NEM (National Electricity Market) or the SWIS (SW Interconnected Network) in WA.

Ironically many of SA's wind farms owe their existence to the now-closed coal-fired power stations of Port Augusta. Three (or is it four, I forget) high capacity power lines run the 300 km from Port Augusta to Adelaide east of Spencer and Saint Vincent gulfs through an area of predominantly north-south trending ranges of hills in a region of mostly westerly winds; ideal for wind farms. There is still room for more wind farms near these power lines.

The map shows that Yorke and Eyre Peninsulas, west of Adelaide, have excellent wind power resources. Wind power developments on both peninsulas have reached the small maximum imposed by the existing low-capacity transmission lines. South Australia's current wind power, 1.8 GW at the end of 2017, could be doubled or more if there was a power transmission system capable of taking the energy.
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Offshore wind power

The map shows that there is huge potential for offshore wind power all along the southern Australian coast. Australia at the time of writing had no offshore wind power, not even any proposed offshore wind power.

Offshore wind power has been much more expensive than onshore, but with substantial and greatly accelerating offshore development overseas costs have come down substantially; see Unearthed and Wind Power Monthly.

There are advantages to offshore wind power compared to onshore:

  • There are no transport constraints due to road access, length limits, weight limits;
  • Winds over the sea tend to be more consistent and less turbulent than those over land;
  • Turbines can be bigger and turbine towers taller because they don't have to be transported by trucks, they are transported by ships;
  • The problems due to nearby habitation that exist for some onshore wind farms do not arise;
  • Turbine bases form anchoring points for marine life: a boost for marine biodiversity.
What is the potential of SA's offshore wind power? It could exceed onshore, I'd say that 5 GW would be conservative.

 
The 137.5 MW first stage of Bungala Solar Farm, under construction
Bungala
A composite of several drone photos taken during construction, 2018/05/10

Solar power potential

At the time of writing the most northerly South Australian solar PV farm was Bungala near Port Augusta, shown in the photo on the right when under construction. Port Augusta is at the northern extremity of Spencer Gulf and about 300 km north of Adelaide.

Australia's only proposed solar thermal power station, Aurora, is also to be at Port Augusta.

Solar power resources at Port Augusta are as good as any anywhere on the NEM grid, that's why these power stations are there (or are proposed to be there); however, the solar resource gets progressively better north of Port Augusta.

Plainly the potential for solar power development in the huge area north of Port Augusta – about 2/3 of the state – is mind-boggling. All that is lacking for its development is transmission lines and a market for the power.

The area of the part of SA north of the settled districts is around 700,000 km2. Solar farms in that area could be expected to have installed capacities of at least 40 MW/km2. So, if 1% of the area of northern SA was covered in solar panels the capacity would be 280 GW and this would generate around 600 TWh/year, more than twice the total annual Australian electricity consumption.

Pumped hydro energy storage

 
Baroota Reservoir; proposed for use for pumped hydro – see text
Baroota Reservior
Photo taken using my drone, 2018/08/21.
The upper reservoir will be near the top of the ridge in the background, 200 m above the water level of the dam; a drilling rig may be seen on the ridge in high-definition version of this photo.
At the time of writing there was negligible utility-scale energy storage in South Australia, the Hornsdale Power Reserve (aka the Tesla Big Battery) stored a maximum of 129 MWh; as mentioned above, we need many gigawatts.

An Australian National University group under Andrew Blakers identified 5000 sites in mid 2017 each seven to 1000 times larger than the Hornsdale Power Reserve; that is, bigger than 1 GWh.

Apart from capacity, pumped hydro has a huge advantage over batteries in its longevity; while a battery can be expected to last for a decade or so, most of the components of a pumped hydro installation will last many decades. On top of this is the question of the recyclability of the components of a battery.

 
An early pilot floating solar power installation
floating solar
On common effluent ponds at Jamestown in Mid-North South Austalia. Photo 2016/12/12
However, while pumped hydro energy storage will certainly be useful for filling in the generation gaps in the local grid I don't see it as the game-changer that energy export could constitute.

Reducing evaporation on pumped hydro storages

Evaporative losses from water storages is a major problem in Australia. While most pumped hydro storages are not large, evaporation losses will still potentially be significant. However there are ways of reducing the losses, even of making good use of the area available to generate more renewable electricity.

In early 2018 a 100 kW floating solar farm had been completed on effluent ponds in Lismore, NSW, with a proposal of installing another 500 kW later. The photo on the right is of an early (2015) pilot installation at Jamestown, South Australia.

Solar panels have been installed on a bigger scale, a megawatt, over irrigation channels in Gujarat, India in a project expected to reduce evaporation by 34 ML per year. Forty megawatts of floating solar panels have also been installed in an area flooded due to coal mining subsidence in China.

More information

I've written more on pumped hydro and pumped hydro using old mines elsewhere.
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Game-changers

In this section I try to follow a line of logical thinking keeping in mind the economics, the need to maintain a reliable power supply and the need to reduce emissions. While the last of these is uppermost in my mind, on this page I try to accept the reality that it seems to have a low priority among those in positions of power (particularly the federal government and the owners of the big fossil-fuelled power stations). In Australia there is a large and powerful lobby for the continued use of fossil fuels.

As discussed above, South Australia sometimes generates more renewable energy than it can consume or export via electricity transmission lines to the eastern states. This excess at present poses problems; but it should be seen as a potential great asset.

There are some technical challenges involved in achieving the full future potential of South Australia's (and the world's) renewable energy resources.

Renewables are now the cheapest form of new-build generation

We all know how important money is; money is a factor in practically every major decision. The fact that onshore wind power and solar PV are now the cheapest ways of generating electricity will certainly be a game-changer. We are already seeing an explosion in the numbers of medium to large-scale solar PV farms. <

Integrating generation, storage and consumption

In the past solar PV generation in Australia has been fed directly into the grid, irrespective of when the power is most needed. It is best if the power could be released as it is needed, particularly in areas having limited flexibility, such as communities at the end of long, limited capacity, power lines.

ARENA Wire, 2018/08/18, described the trial of a system on Tasmania's Bruny Island...

It is an "innovative project using solar and batteries to meet energy needs during holiday periods, when the island’s population soars.

The fully automated Network-Aware Coordination (NAC) system being used is the first of its kind. In the trial, it coordinates batteries equipped with Reposit controllers, to support the network when and where it is needed. In the future, it will also have the capacity to integrate EVs, smart appliances and other distributed resources as they come online."

We will see more and more of this sort of thing, with energy storage being combined with solar and wind power in distributed, rather than centralised systems. There are currently trials of integrating batteries with household batteries happening in South Australia.

Hydrogen generated from renewable energy

 

Hydrogen, ammonia, hydrogen

Hydrogen can be produced from water using renewable energy;
The hydrogen can then be used as a fuel, or;

It can be used to produce ammonia which can conveniently be stored until it is needed or shipped to where it is needed;
Ammonia can be used to produce a number of useful products, particularly fertilisers, or;

The ammonia can be broken down into nitrogen and hydrogen;
The hydrogen can be used as a fuel.
 

Related pages on this site

There is a page on Hydrogen and Energy: The production and uses, and advantages and disadvantages, of hydrogen as a fuel.

There is a page on Power to (hydrogen) Gas (P2G) in Australia.

Hydrogen to replace natural gas

In addition to using the renewably generated hydrogen in a new export industry it can simply be used as a supplement or replacement for natural gas (which cannot last for ever and produces carbon dioxide when burned).

Hydrogen powered vehicles

Hydrogen powered vehicles are very rare in Australia, but there are a number overseas. If Australia had plentiful renewably generated hydrogen they could become a very attractive economic and environmental proposition in Australia.

Hydrogen from coal

Hydrogen can also be made using coal as an energy source, and this has been proposed as a way of providing a future for coal. Of course producing a clean energy source such as hydrogen from coal would be pointless unless the carbon dioxide from the burning of the coal was sequested. The necessary carbon capture and sequestration will make the process too expensive to compete with renewably generated hydrogen.

Exporting renewable energy beyond Australia: the great opportunity

Exporting hydrogen products made using sustainable electricity

South Australia could lead the nation in the export of renewable energy by using it to produce hydrogen, converting this to ammonia and shipping the ammonia overseas.

Why not just ship the hydrogen overseas? Hydrogen cannot be liquified by pressure alone, it must also be made very cold, even then it has a very low density and that means it takes up a lot of space and a lot of energy is used in refrigeration. It can be done, but it is expensive.

On the other hand ammonia is easily liquified and there is already a major international trade in ammonia; the technicalities have been solved. By exporting ammonia South Australia could further develop its huge potential wind and solar resources; we have hardly scratched the surface yet.

Electric vehicles

The number of battery-electric vehicles being built is increasing at an exponential rate. They are uncommon in Australia because of a total lack of the financial incentives that there are in many overseas countries, but there is no doubt that Australia will eventually join the trend. Of course that will increase the demand for electricity, and, even better, there should be some flexibility in the times when EVs can be charged; preferentially when renewable energy is plentifully available.




Technicalities

Some technical points on hydrogen-ammonia-hydrogen conversion

Hydrogen can be produced from water using renewable energy and electrolysis, but hydrogen is not easy to store or transport. It is easy to combine hydrogen with nitrogen to produce ammonia which can readily be stored and transported, and then it is easy to recover the hydrogen from the ammonia. Ammonia could be readily stored in a car's fuel tank and then broken down to hydrogen which could power the car in fuel cells, but there has been one catch. Any trace of ammonia in the hydrogen used in the car's fuel cells will quickly damage them.

Possible breakthrough solution to the ammonia contamination problem

The problem may have been overcome by CSIRO researchers using a breakthrough membrane that, we are told, separates very high purity hydrogen from the ammonia. On 2018/08/08 Brisbane ABC posted a piece by Lexy Hamilton-Smith on online news about the testing of two hydrogen powered cars based in the CSIRO technology.

This has the potential to provide a market for the excess renewable energy that could be generated in South Australia in the future.

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High prices; the effects

The price of electricity in Australia have been higher than many overseas countries. Two of the main reasons are:
  1. The distances that power has to be transmitted in Australia are large and long high-capacity power lines are expensive;
  2. There has been a lack of effective power policy from the federal government for many years; see the effects of uncertainty, below.
South Australia's power prices have been higher than the other states and this has had a lot of publicity. The causes of SA's higher prices have a lot to do with:
  • Much of the state's electricity being generated by burning expensive gas;
  • A small number of companies owning the gas-fired power stations and this allowing them to manipulate the system to get themselves high wholesale power prices.
The causes of the high power prices are not very relevant to this section, I am interested in the effects.

High electricity prices have encouraged householders to install solar power. They have encouraged many businesses to install solar too; in addition a number of big businesses have contracted power purchase agreements with the owners of wind farms or solar farms.

The consequence of high power prices, it seems to me, has been, and will continue to be, for more and more individuals and businesses to switch to renewable energy and therefore increasing amounts of renewable energy being built.

Cost of energy

 
Conventional LCOE estimates for selected technonogies
Cost of energy graph
The table lists only low emission technologies; the cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) greatly increases the cost of fossil fuel generation.

Cost of renewable energy

The graphic on the right is from the CSIRO report "Electricity generation technology projections 2017-2050" by Jenny A Hayward and Paul W Graham, December 2017.

For a full understanding of the table the reader should refer to the CSIRO report. The CSIRO table does not include the cost of gas fired electricity generation, that is included in a costings report from the World Energy Council on another page on this site.

The graph and the CSIRO report show clearly that renewables are cheaper than new-build coal-fired (and nuclear) power stations.

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Uncertainty; the effects

For years there has been a lot of uncertainty in the future of power generation in Australia. One of the responses to this is for businesses to make their own arrangements for power supply by either installing their own solar power or contracting the owners of wind or solar farms for power supplies.

The consequence of uncertainty in the power generation industry, it seems to me, has been, and will continue to be, for more and more individuals and businesses to switch to renewable energy and therefore increasing amounts of renewable energy being built.

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How should decisions be made?

Who should make the decisions that need to be made about South Australia's energy future?
How should they be made?
What aims should there be behind the decisions?

The decisions should be made by an unbiased body that is fully informed and has the required knowledge, or access to that knowledge. It follows that they should not be made by politicians.

The decisions should be made by a competent and independent body under instruction to:

  1. Take full account of the economics of the power supply system;
  2. Consider the future opportunities such as the exporting of energy in one form or another;
  3. Give a high priority to the reliability of the power supply system;
  4. Give full consideration to the available technologies and the technologies that are likely to become available in the near future;
  5. Take into account Australia's commitments and ethical responsibilities to lower greenhouse gas emissions as much as is reasonably possible within economic and technological constraints.
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Related pages

On this site

Australia's energy future

Australia's gobsmackingly biased Energy Minister, Angus Taylor

End of coal: why the coal industry has a very limited future.

Ethics

Greenhouse/climate change: the greatest threat currently facing mankind.

Hydrogen and energy

Killer coal: how the burning of coal kills millions of people world-wide each year.

Power to Gas (P2G, renewable energy used to produced hydrogen gas) in Australia.

Pumped hydro energy storage.

Selfishness or altruism?: self or all?

South Australia's success in changing toward renewable energy

Who wants renewable energy?

Why support wind power

Which electricity generation method should Australia choose for the future?

Which would you prefer, wind energy or fossil fuels?

Wind power opposition: almost universally dishonest.



Related pages on other sites

Hydrogen

Adelaide: a demonstration plant

"Australian-first, $11.4 million hydrogen demonstration plant to be built in Adelaide"; Media Release, Australian Gas Networks, 2018/02/21.
ARENA article on the same project.

Hydrogen for Australia’s future: A briefing paper for the COAG Energy Council – Prepared by the Hydrogen Strategy Group, (headed by Dr Alan Finkel, Australia's Chief Scientist), dated August 2018.

Port Lincoln: a demonstration plant

"Renewable ammonia demonstration plant announced in South Australia"; Ammonia Industry, written by Trevor Brown, 2018/02/16.
"The plant will comprise a 15 MW electrolyser system, to produce the hydrogen, and two technologies for converting the hydrogen back into electricity: a 10MW gas turbine and 5MW fuel cell. The plant will also include a small but significant ammonia plant, making it “among the first ever commercial facilities to produce distributed ammonia from intermittent renewable resources.”

Australia

CSIRO's National Hydrogen Roadmap sketches the opportunities in using hydrogen as a medium for the storing, transporting and consumption of energy.

Opportunities for Australia from hydrogen exports: ACIL Allen consulting for ARENA, dated August 2018. This report's medium growth scenario estimated world-wide annual energy demand for the production of hydrogen to be: 9 TWh by 2025, 32 TWh by 2030, 85 TWh by 2040. To put this in perspective Australia's total current electricity generation in the NEM in 2018 was less than 200 TWh.

$180 million investment in renewable hydrogen energy storage in ACT: ACT Open Government, 2016/08/30.

"How Australia can use hydrogen to export its solar power around the world"; Bianca Nogrady writing in The Guardian 2017/05/19.

16 renewable hydrogen projects backed by ARENA grants, written by Sophie Vorrath in Renew Economy, 2018/09/06. "... ARENA said the R&D projects targeted by the funding covered a diverse range of solutions, with at least one from each point in the supply chain: production, hydrogen carrier, and end use."

"Japan’s hydrogen future may be fuelled by Australian renewables"; ARENA Wire, 2018/07/27.



Energy storage

"Want energy storage? Here are 22,000 sites for pumped hydro across Australia"; Andrew Blakers, Bin Lu, Matthew Stocks, 2017/09/21, The Conversation. "PHES [pumped hydro energy storage] can readily be developed to balance the grid with any amount of solar and wind power, all the way up to 100%, as ageing coal-fired power stations close."

These Australian National University researchers were awarded the prestigious Eureka Science Prize for this work in August 2018.



General

ANU report, 2018/09/10, "Australia’s renewable energy industry is delivering rapid and deep emissions cuts"; written by Ken Baldwin, Andrew Blakers and Matthew Stocks.

"Coal is no longer cheaper – and we'll prove it": Sanjeev Gupta, the British billionaire who saved the Whyalla steel industry knows that the future lies with renewables.

Heroes building Australia's low-carbon economy, by 350 Australia, September 2018. "Despite a lack of federal government leadership, the low-carbon economy is thriving. The stories featured in this report have been chosen by a selection committee incorporating feedback from stakeholders in the low-carbon economy – businesses, community groups, NGOs, researchers, academics, investors and individual experts."

Deloitte Insights: Global renewable energy trends; Solar and wind move from mainstream to preferred. "Technological innovation, cost efficiencies, and increasing consumer demand are driving renewables–particularly wind and solar–to be preferred energy sources. We examine seven trends that are driving this transformation."

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Index

Cost: renewables are now cheapest
Current situation
Decisions; how should they be made?
Evaporation on pumped hydro storages
Exporting hydrogen products made using sustainable electricity
Exporting renewable energy beyond Australia: the great opportunity
Game-changers
Hydrogen generated from renewable energy
Integrating generation, storage and consumption
The NEG
Potential
High prices; the effects
Pumped hydro energy storage
Related pages
Solar power potential
Technicalities
Uncertainty; the effects
The big unknowns
Where do we stand at present? A summary
Where next?
Wind power potential


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