|USA Department of Energy graph|
Much of it was built to allow power grids dominated by inflexible nuclear power to respond to variations in demand.
Why we should use pumped hydro to store large amounts of energy?
How does pumped hydro differ from conventional hydro power?Conventional hydro only allows for water to flow out of a high level storage through turbines to generate power. It cannot pump in the other direction when electricity is cheap. It relies on rain to fill the storage.
Building a pumped hydro system results in much less environmental damage than building conventional hydro because the storages can be much smaller and pumped hydro can be recharged as often as needed.
What are the alternatives to pumped hydro?
Batteries (electro-chemical)Batteries are the obvious alternative. The Tesla big battery to be built at Hornsdale in Mid-North South Australia in late 2017 has had a lot of publicity as the biggest battery in the world: it will store 129 MWh of energy (it will be able to release this at a maximum power of 100 MW).
By far the greatest part of the materials required to build a pumped hydro
system have a simple chemistry and are easily disposed of, or recycled, at
the end of their useful lives: steel, concrete, earth, rock;
Flywheels (electro mechanical)These can be used for storing very limited amounts of energy with a very rapid response time.
Hydrogen storageSeems to have great potential for medium- to long-term storage of large amounts of energy, but at the present it is very expensive and not very efficient. There was a Power to hydrogen trial announced in August 2017 in South Australia.
Thermal storageMolten salt is often used as the working fluid in a solar thermal power station; it can be stored efficiently for a period of several hours up to a few days. Well and good for a solar thermal power station, however, using electricity to heat something like salt and then using the hot salt to produce steam and generate electricity is very inefficient.
In What is the real cost of water?, written 2007/09/14 I noted that the cost of water in Australia varied from $0.0013/kL ($1.30/ML) in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area to around $1/kL for a domestic consumer in South Australia (the cost to domestic consumers in SA had increased to around $3/kL by 2017). Most of the variation is due to the costs involved in getting the water to where it is required.
In Reducing evaporation losses from farm dams I discused the large evaporation losses from open water storages and some of the methods used to reduce them. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology records an annual evaporation rate at Port Augusta, South Australia, of around two metres.
In his study of pumped hydro sites Andrew Blakers states that the typical area of a pumped hydro dam will be between 10 and 100 hectares, so at two metres evaporation per annum that amounts to between 200 ML and 2 GL lost to evaporation each year. Blakers has estimated that if South Australia was to build enough pumped hydro energy storage to allow 100% renewable energy less than 1% of the state's water extraction from the Murray would be required for topping-up.
One way of reducing evaporation losses would be by floating rafts of solar PV (photovoltaic) panels on the dams, giving the advantage of generating power at the same time. This has been done on a very small scale (photo on the right), and proposed on a much larger scale, at Jamestown in South Australia. There would be challenges relating to the frequent filling and emptying of the dams beneath the floating panels.
Solar panels have been installed on a bigger scale, a megawatt, over irrigation channels in Gujarat, India in a project expected to reduce evaporation by 34 ML per year. Forty megawatts of floating solar panels have also been installed in an area flooded due to coal mining subsidence in China.
LinkABC 4 Corners program on the illegal extraction of water from the Murray-Darling system, 2017/07/24.
Using seawater for pumped hydro in the drier parts of Australia has obvious
advantages over installations using fresh water.
Seawater is plentiful and cheap, there is no need to build a lower storage,
it is available in lots of places where there are nearby high hills suitable
for building the upper storage – coastal cliffs.
It is more challenging in that corrosion and fouling problems would have to be guarded against.
It concerns me from an environmental ground. Anti-fouling chemicals would have to be used to stop organisms from attaching themselves to the turbines and pipes. Since the water would be periodically taken from the sea and put back into the sea it seems that the chemicals would be released into the open sea with possible toxic impacts. Confining the chemicals in a lower storage so that they did not impact sea life removes the financial advantage of not having the lower storage.
So far as I know seawater pumped hydro has only been done once with a high head, as would be used in Australia; a trial project at a Okinawa, Japan.
Links: seawater pumped hydroScience Direct; Seawater pumped-storage power plant in Okinawa island, Japan; Akitaka Hiratsuka, Takashi Arai, Tsukasa Yoshimura
Wikipedia; Okinawa Yanbaru Seawater Pumped Storage Power Station
Links: seawater pumped hydro in South AustraliaEnergy Australia: Consortium assessing pumped hydro storage plant in Spencer Gulf, South Australia
Article on the Spencer Gulf project by Simon Holmes a Court, 2017/09/29, in RenewEconomy. Simon goes into detail in the figures, including financial figures as well as storage volumes and power output and storage.
On this site...Base load power: the facts
How should Australia generate its electricity?
South Australia's success with renewable power
Mid-North South Australia, leading the nation in renewable energy
Northern SA's renewables
Wind power in Australia
Impressive renewable energy developments in Australia
Glossary of technical terms relating to wind power
Reducing evaporation losses from farm dams
What is the real cost of water?
Energy from falling water
Why accept climate science?
Climate change disasters and the Australian government's actions
Greatest crime in history
Major threatened disasters compared
The end of coal
Coal seam gas: an environmental disaster
The Turnbull Australian Government
Coal seam gas: an environmental disaster
Elsewhere on the Internet...Australian National University group under Andrew Blakers identified 5000 sites in Queensland, Tasmania, the Canberra district and near Alice Springs, mid 2017. Blakers' group also identified 180 sites in South Australia around mid 2017. They estimated that 400 ha of water storage would be required for SA to reach 100% renewable power; water top-up requirements were estimated to be less than 1% of SA's extraction from the Murray River.
PHES for SA ASAP; Pumped hydro energy storage for South Australia as soon as possible on Facebook
The Conversation; Want energy storage? Here are 22,000 sites for pumped hydro across Australia; by Andrew Blakers, Bin Lu and Matthew Stocks
Energy Storage Association: Pumped Hydroelectric Storage
Wikipedia: Pumped storage hydroelectricity
Pumped hydro using seawater in SAEnergy Australia: Consortium assessing pumped hydro storage plant in South Australia (using sea water)
Renew Economy: South Australia leads again as saltwater pumped hydro storage takes shape; By Simon Holmes a Court; 2017/09/29